Both diseases are relatively rare, but non-Hodgkin lymphoma is more common in the United States, with more than 70,000 new cases diagnosed each year, compared to about 8,000 for Hodgkin lymphoma. The median age of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma is 60, but it occurs in all age groups. Hodgkin lymphoma most often occurs in people ages 15 to 24 and in people over 60 including those were exposed to the Epstein-Barr virus, one consequence of which is the production of chronic inflammation.
“Chronic inflammation in the microenvironment of cHL might not only dictate the pattern of EBV gene expression but also modulate the oncogenic functions of individual EBV genes such as LMP1”. (2) (Source)
There are more than 60 distinct types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, whereas Hodgkin lymphoma is a more homogeneous disease. (3) (Source)
The two forms of lymphoma are marked by a painless swelling of the lymph nodes. Hodgkin lymphomas are more likely to arise in the upper portion of the body (the neck, underarms, or chest). Non-Hodgkin lymphoma can arise in lymph nodes throughout the body, but can also arise in normal organs. Patients with either type can have symptoms such as weight loss, fevers, and night sweats.
The diseases often follow different courses of progression. Hodgkin lymphoma tends to progress in an orderly fashion, moving from one group of lymph nodes to the next, and is often diagnosed before it reaches an advanced stage. Most patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma are diagnosed at a more advanced stage.
Conventional Treatments for lymphoma vary depending on the type of disease, its aggressiveness, and location, along with the age and general health of the patient. As a general rule, however, Hodgkin lymphoma is considered one of the most treatable cancers, with more than 90 percent of patients surviving more than five years.
While 90 percent five years survival is a good score, there is consistent evidence that shows over ten times more cancers that surface after the five-year period, and often before the ten years period, notably when cytotoxic and radiation invasive methods are used, both of which are carcinogenic via their modus operandi. (See blog).
Survival rates for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma tend to be lower, but for certain types of the disease, the survival rates are similar to those of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. New treatment approaches, including the use of therapies that spur the immune system to attack cancerous lymphocytes, are being worked on. Monoclonal antibody protocol is also an option. (4)
Mainstream immunotherapy boils down to checkpoint inhibitors. The future of immune checkpoint blockers for cancer almost always involves a combination with other types of treatment like radiation therapy, targeted agents, cancer vaccines, and some chemotherapy agents . Based on a fee per service medical system, this can make the cancer bill skyrocket quite high.
While allopathic immunotherapy is rapidly becoming a mainstay of the anti-cancer arsenal, little is done to test holistic immune-modulating techniques, the clinical use of which goes back to the Ancient Greeks and beyond when immune-boosting fever and sauna therapies were used. (See blog)
Ch. J. (ACRI director)
Reference and Precision Notes
(1). B cells and T cells play different roles in the body’s immune response to disease. B lymphocytes (B cells): B cells make proteins called antibodies to help protect the body from germs (bacteria and viruses).T lymphocytes (T cells): There are several types of T cells. Some T cells destroy germs or abnormal cells in the body. Other T cells help boost or slow the activity of other immune system cells.
(2). The mechanism of action of EBV as a co-factor to Hodgkin Lymphoma has been linked to its inflammatory nature. While most studies do not see EBV as the sole or even decisive causative factor on cancer, it’s oncogenic impact would appear to come from its chronic inflammatory impact. See https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4308654/
(4). Monoclonal antibody therapy is a cancer treatment that uses antibodies made in the laboratory, from a single type of immune system cell. These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow. The antibodies attach to the substances and kill the cancer cells, block their growth, or keep them from spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion. They may be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly to cancer cells. While this approach constitutes a clinical progress, the ACR Institute’s approach is to first try getting the body to get its own antibodies working again. Normally, the body is able to recognize cancer cells and do its own cleaning up via apoptosis, autophagy and the sencescence mechanism. But this implies lots of holistic rejuvenation efforts that not all patients may want to invest in.