Below is a timeline of bladder cancer, describing major discoveries and advances in the treatment of this disease. These advances are restricted to conventional oncology. Integrative and holistic oncology are usually not considered given the difficulty of testing these alternative modalities with the double blind randomized control trial model, which is crafted especially for drugs and the like. (See the Institute’s File on the Issue of Evidence).
|19th century||The cytoscope develops. The first cystectomy for bladder cancer is performed.|
|1940s–1960s||Urine cytology emerges as a tool to detect recurrent bladder and urinary tract cancers.|
|1970s||Cigarette smoking is linked to bladder cancer risk. First chemotherapy drug is released for bladder cancer.|
|1980s||Mitomycin chemotherapy is consolidated. Surgical advances improve bladder cancer survival. First successful combination chemotherapy for advanced bladder cancer is achieved.|
|1990s||Surgical techniques consolidate. New chemotherapies emerge to treat bladder cancer.|
|2000s||New chemotherapies prove to extend survival against bladder cancer. CT scan improves bladder cancer detection.|
|Recent years||As of 2010, bladder cancer resulted in 170,000 deaths up from 114,000 in 1990 worldwide. Current treatment options for people with bladder cancer can include surgery, intravesical therapy, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and immunotherapy.|
|Year/period||Type of event||Event||Location|
|1854||Discovery||Inverted papilloma (a tumor that may occur in the bladder and other components of the urinary tract) is first described.|
|1877||Development||German urologist Maximilian Nitze develops the cystoscope, a device used to perform endoscopy of the urinary bladdervia the urethra.|
|1887||Treatment||The first cystectomy for bladder cancer is performed.||Cologne, Germany|
|1895||Discovery||Link between bladder cancer and environmental carcinogens is first postulated.|
|1902||Organization||The American Urological Association is founded.||Linthicum, Maryland, United States|
|1903||Treatment||Radium is first used to treat bladder tumors.||United States|
|1911||Discovery||Schistosomiasis is first linked to urinary bladder cancer.||Egypt|
|1929||Discovery||Research notes that patients with tuberculosis have lower rates of cancer when examined at autopsy. This observation is among the first to link the possibility of bladder cancer treatment with BCG.|
|1945||Development||Urine cytology (a test used to diagnose urinary tract cancers) is first described.|
|1952||Discovery||Transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the bladder is first described.|
|1956||Treatment||Early bladder removal surgery is introduced. This include surgically removing the bladder (cystectomy) and surrounding tissue where cancer is most likely to spread.|
|1974||Discovery||Research ties sharp increase in bladder cancer deaths among British men to the rapid rise in cigarette smoking during prior decades.||United Kingdom|
|1978||Treatment||United States FDA approves the first chemotherapy drug cisplatin for bladder cancer.||United States|
|1980–1985||Treatment||Reconstructive bladder surgery is found to improve quality of life. Surgeons begin to offer a neobladder to select patients needing surgery (cystectomy) for bladder cancer. This procedure provides a functional replacement for the bladder using tissue fashioned from the small bowel that allows the passage of urine through the urethra.|
|1982||Discovery||Micropapillary bladder cancer (a rare and aggressive variant of urothelial carcinoma) is first described.|
|1985||Treatment||Neoadjuvant chemotherapy combining methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC) is first described. MVAC is one of the most active chemotherapy regimens for bladder cancer.|
|1985–1989||Treatment||Researchers map out the nerves surrounding the bladder and prostate and develop a new surgical technique that spares key nerves involved in male sexual function, thus preserving it.|
|1987||Treatment||Implant treats bladder cancer without surgery. The procedure involves implanting radioactive sources into cancerous tumors within the bladder.||United States|
|1988||Discovery||Intravesical chemotherapy using mitomycin is found to reduce risk of bladder cancer’s return.|
|1990||Treatment||United States FDA approved the use of live bacterium, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for superficial bladder cancer. BCG immunotherapy helps reduce the risk of bladder cancer recurrence by stimulating an immune response that targets the bacteria as well as any bladder cancer cells.||United States|
|1997||Treatment||Introduction of combination therapy using both radiation and cisplatin chemotherapy together, is found to be a new treatment alternative for patients with advanced bladder cancer who are older or otherwise unable to undergo bladder surgery.|
|2000||Treatment||New chemotherapy combination regimen using gemcitabine together with cisplatin is found to be comparably effective but has relatively fewer side effects than standard MVAC therapy.|
|2002||Report||Approximately 356,000 new bladder cancer cases worldwide are reported.|
|2003||Treatment||Research demonstrates that giving chemotherapy before bladder surgery improves survival for patients whose cancer has not spread significantly beyond the bladder, compared with surgery alone.|
|2009||Organization||Bladder Cancer Canada is formed as a patient advocacy organization dedicated to bladder cancer issues.||Canada|
|2016||Discovery||Study suggests that alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment of the bladder, especially type I collagen, may contribute to bladder cancer progression.||Houston, Texas, United States|
|2016||Development||New technology helps doctors detect cancerous tumors in the bladder that are invisible to the naked eye.||Murray, Utah, United States|
To check out the Holistic Approach to Cancers in general and Bladder cancer in particular, consider scheduling a coaching session. This approach does have evidence to support it, but not in terms of the conventional model.
Text under construction
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