Tumor’s Micro-Environment

 

 

THE PERTINENCE OF CANCER’S MICRO-ENVIRONMENT

Some tumors behave as wounds that do not heal (Source), Growth factors and cytokines released by the micro-environment’s fibroblasts and macrophages, cells programmed to heal wounds, can and do provoke chronic inflammation and tumor progression (Source). Part of the wound healing process also involves degradation of the extracellular matrix and enhancement of angiogenesis, which further contribute to tumor progression (Source)

 

“In higher organisms, innate scavenging cells maintain physiologic homeostasis by removal of the billions of apoptotic cells generated on a daily basis. Apoptotic cell removal requires efficient recognition and uptake by professional and non-professional phagocytic cells, which are governed by an array of soluble and apoptotic cell-integral signals resulting in immunologically silent clearance. While apoptosis is associated with profound suppression of adaptive and innate inflammatory immunity, we have only begun to scratch the surface in understanding how immunologic tolerance to apoptotic self manifest at either the molecular or cellular level. In the last 10 years, data has emerged implicating professional phagocytes, most notably stromal macrophages and CD8α(+)CD103(+) dendritic cells, as critical in initiation of the regulatory cascade that will ultimately lead to long-term whole-animal immune tolerance. Importantly, recent work by our lab and others has shown that alterations in apoptotic cell perception by the innate immune system either by removal of critical phagocytic sentinels in secondary lymphoid organs or blockage of immunosuppressive pathways leads to pronounced inflammation with a breakdown of tolerance towards self. This challenges the paradigm that apoptotic cells are inherently immunosuppressive, suggesting that apoptotic cell tolerance is a “context-dependent” event. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013 Feb 3. [Epub ahead of print] O death where is thy sting? Immunologic tolerance to apoptotic self. Ravishankar B, McGaha TL. Source Cancer Immunology, Inflammation, and Tolerance Program, GRU Cancer Center, Georgia Regents University, Building CN4143, 1120 15th Street, Augusta, GA, 30904, USA. source

b cells aslo disarmed in microenvi (Source)

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

CANCER IS A MICRO-ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASE WHICH CAN BE REVERSED WITH A HOLISTIC & LIFESTYLE APPROACH

Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes” (Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Sundaram C, Harikumar KB, Tharakan ST, Lai OS, Sung B, Aggarwal BB: Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes. Pharm Res 2008, 25:2097-2116 (Source)

 

“Cancer cells inside the body live in a very complex environment or neighborhood. Where the tumor cell resides and who its neighbors are influence its response and resistance to therapy” Peter S. Nelson, M.D., a member of the Hutchinson Center’s Human Biology Division

In this framework, Nelson and colleagues of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Center  have found that a type of normal, noncancerous cell that lives in cancer’s neighborhood (the fibroblast),  when exposed to chemotherapy, sustains DNA damage that drives the production of a broad spectrum of growth factors that stimulate cancer growth. [7] In particular,  the researchers found that DNA-damaging cancer treatment coaxes fibroblasts to crank out a protein called WNT16B within the tumor neighborhood, or microenvironment, and that high levels of this protein enable cancer cells to grow, invade surrounding tissue and resist chemotherapy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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