Sonodynamic therapy

Sonodynamic therapy involves the use of drugs that only become cytotoxic upon exposure to ultrasound. Since ultrasound can be focused into small tissue volumes within the body, it provides a means of localizing treatment and reducing the risk of toxic side-effects elsewhere in the body. In this respect it is similar to photodynamic therapy, which uses light for drug activation, and there are several drugs that have been shown to be sensitive to both light and sound.[1][2]

The main advantage of sonodynamic over photodynamic therapy is the much greater tissue depth that can be reached non-invasively by ultrasound compared to light.

Upon activation, sonodynamic therapy drugs or “sonosensitisers” produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that generate the cytotoxic effect. The detailed mechanisms of ROS production are not fully understood but several studies have indicated that acoustic cavitation and the associated thermal, chemical or luminescence phenomena may be involved.[3][4] Cytotoxicity has been shown to be significantly increased in the presence of cavitation nuclei such as microbubbble ultrasound contrast agents,[5] particularly when these are loaded with oxygen.[6] Sonodynamic therapy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of tumours in a range of in vitro and in vivo studies[7][8][9][10] and is also being explored for other applications including as an antimicrobial treatment.[11] There have been a limited number of clinical trials to date.[12]

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  1. ^ Wan, Guo-Yun; Liu, Yang; Chen, Bo-Wei; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Yin-Song; Zhang, Ning (2016-09-30). “Recent advances of sonodynamic therapy in cancer treatment”. Cancer Biology & Medicine. 13 (3): 325–338. doi:10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2016.0068. ISSN 2095-3941. PMC 5069838. PMID 27807500.
  2. ^ Yumita, Nagahiko; Nishigaki, Ryuichiro; Umemura, Koshiro; Umemura, Shin-ichiro (1989-03-01). “Hematoporphyrin as a Sensitizer of Cell-damaging Effect of Ultrasound”. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research. 80 (3): 219–222. doi:10.1111/j.1349-7006.1989.tb02295.x. ISSN 1349-7006.
  3. ^ McHale, Anthony P.; Callan, John F.; Nomikou, Nikolitsa; Fowley, Colin; Callan, Bridgeen (2016). Therapeutic Ultrasound. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Springer, Cham. pp. 429–450. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-22536-4_22. ISBN 9783319225357. PMID 26486350.
  4. ^ ROSENTHAL, I (2004). “Sonodynamic therapy??a review of the synergistic effects of drugs and ultrasound”. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. doi:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2004.03.004. PMID 15302020.
  5. ^ Zhou, Yun; Cui, Jianmin; Deng, Cheri X. (2008). “Dynamics of Sonoporation Correlated with Acoustic Cavitation Activities”. Biophysical Journal. 94 (7): L51–L53. doi:10.1529/biophysj.107.125617.
  6. ^ McEwan, Conor; Owen, Joshua; Stride, Eleanor; Fowley, Colin; Nesbitt, Heather; Cochrane, David; Coussios, Constantin.C.; Borden, M.; Nomikou, Nikolitsa (2015). “Oxygen carrying microbubbles for enhanced sonodynamic therapy of hypoxic tumours”. Journal of Controlled Release. 203: 51–56. doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2015.02.004.
  7. ^ Yumita, N.; Nishigaki, R.; Umemura, S. (October 2000). “Sonodynamically induced antitumor effect of Photofrin II on colon 26 carcinoma”. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology. 126 (10): 601–606. ISSN 0171-5216. PMID 11043398.
  8. ^ Gao, Zhongxiuzi; Zheng, Jinhua; Yang, Bin; Wang, Zhu; Fan, Haixia; Lv, Yanhong; Li, Haixia; Jia, Limin; Cao, Wenwu (2013). “Sonodynamic therapy inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model”. Cancer Letters. 335(1): 93–99. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2013.02.006.
  9. ^ McEwan, Conor; Kamila, Sukanta; Owen, Joshua; Nesbitt, Heather; Callan, Bridgeen; Borden, Mark; Nomikou, Nikolitsa; Hamoudi, Rifat A.; Taylor, Mark A. (2016). “Combined sonodynamic and antimetabolite therapy for the improved treatment of pancreatic cancer using oxygen loaded microbubbles as a delivery vehicle”. Biomaterials. 80: 20–32. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2015.11.033.
  10. ^ Maeda, Masanori; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Okamoto, Jun; Yoshizawa, Shin; Abe, Nobutaka; Nakamoto, Hidekazu; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Kenichi; Umemura, Shinichiro (October 2017). “Sonodynamic Therapy Based on Combined Use of Low Dose Administration of Epirubicin-Incorporating Drug Delivery System and Focused Ultrasound”. Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. 43 (10): 2295–2301. doi:10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2017.06.003.
  11. ^ Costley, David; Nesbitt, Heather; Ternan, Nigel; Dooley, James; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R.; McHale, Anthony P.; Callan, John F. (2017). “Sonodynamic inactivation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using a Rose Bengal–antimicrobial peptide conjugate”. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 49(1): 31–36. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.09.034. PMC 5191983.
  12. ^ Wang, X (2008). “Primary clinical use of sonodynamic therapy (SDT) for advanced breast cancer”. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 26: 12029.
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