Estimates place the worldwide risk of cancers from infectious causes at 16.1%. Viral infections are risk factors for cervical cancer, 80% of liver cancers, and 15–20% of the other cancers. This proportion varies in different regions of the world from a high of 32.7% in Sub-Saharan Africa to 3.3% in Australia and New Zealand. Viruses are the usual infectious agents that cause cancer but Mycobacterium, some other bacteria and parasites also have an effect.
A virus that can cause cancer is called an oncovirus. These include human papillomavirus (cervical carcinoma), Epstein-Barr virus(B-cell lymphoproliferative disease and nasopharyngeal carcinoma), Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (Kaposi’s Sarcoma and primary effusion lymphomas), hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (hepatocellular carcinoma), and Human T-cell leukemia virus-1(T-cell leukemias). Bacterial infection may also increase the risk of cancer, as seen in Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinoma. Parasitic infections strongly associated with cancer include Schistosoma haematobium (squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder) and the liver flukes, Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis (cholangiocarcinoma).
Infection is the fourth most important risk factor for cancer mortality in the developed world, causing about 10% of cancer mortality (see cancer prevention), coming after tobacco (~30% of cancers), diet (~30%) and obesity (~15%). Cancer causes 22.5% of deaths in the United States, so that about 2% of mortality in the United States appears to be due to cancers caused by infections. This is comparable to mortality caused by influenza and pneumonia, which cause 2.1% of deaths in the United States.
Worldwide in 2015, the most common causes of cancer death were lung cancer (1.6 million deaths), liver cancer (745,000 deaths), and stomach cancer (723,000 deaths). Lung cancer is largely due to non-infectious causes, such as tobacco smoke. However, liver and stomach cancer are primarily due to infectious causes. Liver cancer is largely caused by infectious hepatitis B virus (HBV) plus hepatitis C virus (HBC) and stomach cancer is largely caused by Helicobacter pylori bacteria. World-wide, the estimated number of people chronically infected with HBV and/or HCV is ~325 million. Over half of the world’s population is colonized with H. pylori and it is estimated that H. pylori-positive patients have a 1-2% risk of developing distal gastric cancer.
DNA damage and genomic instability appear to be the basic causes of sporadic (non-familial) cancer. While infections have many effects, infectious organisms that increase the risk of cancer are frequently a source of DNA damage or genomic instability, as discussed below for oncogenic viruses and an oncogenic bacterium.
In Western developed countries, human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most frequently encountered oncogenic DNA viruses.
Worldwide, HPV causes the second largest fraction of infection-associated cancers or 5.2% of the global cancer burden.
In the United States, HPV causes most cervical cancers, as well as some cancers of the vagina, vulva, penis, anus, rectum, and oropharynx (cancers of the back of the throat, including the base of the tongue and tonsils). Each year in the United States, about 39,800 new cases of cancer are found in parts of the body where HPV is often found. HPV causes about 31,500 of these cancers.
As reviewed by Münger et al. there are about 200 HPVs. They can be classified into mucosal and cutaneous HPVs. Within each of these HPV groups, individual viruses are designated high risk or low risk according to the propensity for malignant progression of the lesions that they cause. Among the HPV high-risk viruses, the HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins functionally inactivate the p53 and retinoblastoma tumor suppressors respectively. In addition, the high-risk HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins can each independently induce genomic instability in normal human cells. They generate mitotic defects and aneuploidy through the induction of centrosome abnormalities.
Hepatitis virus-associated hepatocarcinogenesis is a serious health concern. Liver cancer in the United States is primarily due to three main factors: hepatitis C virus (HCV) (22%), hepatitis B virus (HBV) (12%) and alcohol use (47%). In 2017 there will be about 40,710 new cases of liver cancer in the United States. World-wide, liver cancer mortality is more often due to hepatitis B virus (HBV) (33%), less often due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) (21%), and still frequently due to alcohol use (30%).World-wide, liver cancer is the 4th most frequent cause of cancer mortality, causing 9% of all cancer mortality (total liver cancer deaths in 2015 being 810,500), and coming, in frequency, after lung, colorectal and stomach cancers.
As reviewed by Takeda et al., HCV and HBV cause carcinogenic DNA damage and genomic instability by a number of mechanisms. HBV, and especially HCV, cause chronic inflammation in the liver, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. ROS interact directly with DNA, causing multiple types of DNA damages (26 ROS-induced DNA damages are described by Yu et al.) It also appears that chronic inflammation caused by HCV infection triggers the aberrant up-regulation of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in hepatocytes. AID creates mutations in DNA by deamination (a DNA damage) of the cytosine base, which converts cytosine into uracil. Thus, it changes a C:G base pair into a mutagenic U:G mismatch. In a still further cause of DNA damage, HCV core protein binds to the NBS1 protein and inhibits the formation of the Mre11/NBS1/Rad50 complex, thereby inhibiting DNA binding of repair enzymes. As a result of reduced DNA repair mutagenic DNA damages can accumulate.
H. pylori causes over 63% of all stomach cancers, which corresponds to more than 5.5% of all cancers in the world. As reviewed by Chang and Parsonnet, chronic H. pylori infection in the human stomach is characterized by chronic inflammation. This is accompanied by epithelial cell release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNOS), followed by the assembly of activated macrophages at the stomach site of infection. The macrophages also release ROS and RNOS. Levels of 8-oxo-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), one of the predominant forms of free radical-induced oxidative DNA damages, are increased more than 8-fold in DNA after infection by H. pylori, especially if the H. pylori are cagA positive. The increase in 8-OHdG likely increases mutation. In addition, oxidative stress, with high levels of 8-OHdG in DNA, also affects genome stability by altering chromatin status. Such alterations can lead to abnormal methylation of promoters of tumor suppressor genes.
Tuberculosis is a risk factor for lung cancer.
Viruses are one of the most important risks factor for cancer development in humans.
Infection by some hepatitis viruses, especially hepatitis B and hepatitis C, can induce a chronic viral infection that leads to liver cancer in about 1 in 200 of people infected with hepatitis B each year (more in Asia, fewer in North America), and in about 1 in 45 of people infected with hepatitis C each year. People with chronic hepatitis B infection are more than 200 times more likely to develop liver cancer than uninfected people. Liver cirrhosis, whether from chronic viral hepatitis infection or alcohol abuse or some other cause, is independently associated with the development of liver cancer, and the combination of cirrhosis and viral hepatitis presents the highest risk of liver cancer development. Because chronic viral hepatitis is so common, and liver cancer so deadly, liver cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths in the world, and is especially common in East Asia and parts of sub-Sarahan Africa.
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are another particularly common cancer-causing virus. HPV is well known for causing genital warts and essentially all cases of cervical cancer, but it can also infect and cause cancer in several other parts of the body, including the larynx, lining of the mouth, nose, and throat, anus, and esophagus. The Papanicolaou smear (“Pap” smear) is a widely used cancer screening test for cervical cancer. DNA-based tests to identify the virus are also available.
Herpesviruses are a third group of common cancer-causing viruses. Two types of herpesviruses have been associated with cancer: the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). EBV appears to cause all nonkeratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinomas and some cases of lymphoma, including Burkitt’s lymphoma—the association is especially strong in Africa—and Hodgkin’s disease. EBV has also been found in a variety of other types of cancer cells, although its role in causing these other cancers is not well established. KSHV/HHV-8 causes all cases of Kaposi’s sarcoma, and has been found in some cases of a cancer-related condition called Castleman’s disease. Studies involving other kinds of cancer, particularly prostate cancer, have been inconsistent. Both of these herpesviruses are commonly found in cancerous cells of primary effusion lymphoma. Herpesviruses also cause cancer in animals, especially leukemias and lymphomas.
Human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) was the first human retrovirus discovered by Robert Gallo and colleagues at NIH. The virus causes Adult T-cell leukemia, a disease first described by Takatsuki and colleagues in Japan  and other neurological diseases.
Merkel cell polyomavirus is the most recently discovered human cancer virus, isolated from Merkel cell carcinoma tissues in 2008, by the same group that discovered KSHV/HHV-8 in 1994, using a new technology called digital transcriptome subtraction. About 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas are caused by Merkel cell polyomavirus; the remaining tumors have an unknown etiology and possibly a separate histogenesis. This is the only member of this group of viruses known to cause human cancer but other polyomaviruses are suspects for being additional cancer viruses.
HIV does not directly cause cancer, but it is associated with a number of malignancies, especially Kaposi’s sarcoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, anal cancer and cervical cancer. Kaposi’s sarcoma is caused by human herpesvirus 8. AIDS-related cases of anal cancer and cervical cancer are commonly caused by human papillomavirus. After HIV destroys the immune system, the body is no longer able to control these viruses, and the infections manifest as cancer. Certain other immune deficiency states (e.g. common variable immunodeficiency and IgA deficiency) are also associated with increased risk of malignancy.
In addition to viruses, certain kinds of bacteria can cause some cancers. The most prominent example is the link between chronic infection of the wall of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer. Although only a minority of those infected with Helicobacter go on to develop cancer, since this bacterial infection is quite common, it may be responsible for most of these cancers. The mechanism by which H. pylori causes cancer may involve chronic inflammation, or the direct action of some of its virulence factors, for example, CagA has been implicated in carcinogenesis.
One meta-analysis of serological data comparing prior C. pneumoniae infection in patients with and without lung cancer found results suggesting prior infection was associated with a slightly increased risk of developing lung cancer.
The parasites that cause schistosomiasis (bilharzia), especially S. haematobium, can cause bladder cancer and cancer at other sites. Inflammation triggered by the worm’s eggs appears to be the mechanism by which squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder is caused. In Asia, infection by S. japonicum is associated with colorectal cancer.
Distomiasis, caused by parasitic liver flukes, is associated with cholangiocarcinoma (cancer of the bile duct) in East Asia.
Malaria is associated with Burkitt’s lymphoma in Africa, especially when present in combination with Epstein-Barr virus, although it is unclear whether it is causative.
Parasites are also a significant cause of cancer in animals. Cysticercus fasciolaris, the larval form of the common tapeworm of the cat, Taenia taeniaformis, causes cancer in rats. Spirocerca lupi is associated with esophageal cancer in dogs, at least within the southern United States.
A novel type of case, reported in 2015, involved an immunocompromised man whose tapeworm underwent malignant transformation, causing metastasis of tapeworm cell neoplasia throughout his body. This was not a cancer of his own cells but of the parasite’s. This isolated case has no substantive bearing on public health but is interesting for being “a novel disease mechanism that links infection and cancer.”
- Cornwall, Claudia M. Catching cancer : the quest for its viral and bacterial causes. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2013.
- de Martel C, Ferlay J, Franceschi S, Vignat J, Bray F, Forman D, Plummer M (June 2012). “Global burden of cancers attributable to infections in 2008: a review and synthetic analysis”. Lancet Oncol. 13 (6): 607–615. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70137-7. PMID 22575588.
- De Paoli, Paolo; Carbone, Antonino (2013). “Carcinogenic viruses and solid cancers without sufficient evidence of causal association”. International Journal of Cancer. 133 (7): 1517–1529. doi:10.1002/ijc.27995. ISSN 0020-7136. PMID 23280523.
- Pagano JS, Blaser M, Buendia MA, et al. (December 2004). “Infectious agents and cancer: criteria for a causal relation”. Seminars in Cancer Biology. 14 (6): 453–71. doi:10.1016/j.semcancer.2004.06.009. PMID 15489139.
- Samaras V, Rafailidis PI, Mourtzoukou EG, Peppas G, Falagas ME (May 2010). “Chronic bacterial and parasitic infections and cancer: a review”. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 4 (5): 267–81. doi:10.3855/jidc.819. PMID 20539059.
- Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, Rebelo M, Parkin DM, Forman D, Bray F (2015). “Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012″. Int. J. Cancer. 136 (5): E359–86. doi:10.1002/ijc.29210. PMID 25220842.
- “WHO | New hepatitis data highlight need for urgent global response”.
- Kusters JG, van Vliet AH, Kuipers EJ (2006). “Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection”. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 19 (3): 449–90. doi:10.1128/CMR.00054-05. PMC 1539101. PMID 16847081.
- Bernstein C, Prasad AR, Nfonsam V, Bernstein H. (2013). DNA Damage, DNA Repair and Cancer, New Research Directions in DNA Repair, Prof. Clark Chen (Ed.), ISBN 978-953-51-1114-6, InTech, http://www.intechopen.com/books/new-research-directions-in-dna-repair/dna-damage-dna-repair-and-cancer
- Ferguson LR, Chen H, Collins AR, Connell M, Damia G, Dasgupta S, Malhotra M, Meeker AK, Amedei A, Amin A, Ashraf SS, Aquilano K, Azmi AS, Bhakta D, Bilsland A, Boosani CS, Chen S, Ciriolo MR, Fujii H, Guha G, Halicka D, Helferich WG, Keith WN, Mohammed SI, Niccolai E, Yang X, Honoki K, Parslow VR, Prakash S, Rezazadeh S, Shackelford RE, Sidransky D, Tran PT, Yang ES, Maxwell CA (2015). “Genomic instability in human cancer: Molecular insights and opportunities for therapeutic attack and prevention through diet and nutrition”. Semin. Cancer Biol. 35 Suppl: S5–S24. doi:10.1016/j.semcancer.2015.03.005. PMC 4600419. PMID 25869442.
- Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Kunnumakara AB, Sundaram C, Harikumar KB, Tharakan ST, Lai OS, Sung B, Aggarwal BB (2008). “Cancer is a preventable disease that requires major lifestyle changes”. Pharm. Res. 25 (9): 2097–116. doi:10.1007/s11095-008-9661-9. PMC 2515569. PMID 18626751.
- Parkin DM (2006). “The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002″. Int. J. Cancer. 118 (12): 3030–44. doi:10.1002/ijc.21731. PMID 16404738.
- Münger K, Baldwin A, Edwards KM, Hayakawa H, Nguyen CL, Owens M, Grace M, Huh K (2004). “Mechanisms of human papillomavirus-induced oncogenesis”. J. Virol. 78 (21): 11451–60. doi:10.1128/JVI.78.21.11451-11460.2004. PMC 523272. PMID 15479788.
- Takeda H, Takai A, Inuzuka T, Marusawa H (2017). “Genetic basis of hepatitis virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma: linkage between infection, inflammation, and tumorigenesis”. J. Gastroenterol. 52 (1): 26–38. doi:10.1007/s00535-016-1273-2. PMID 27714455.
- Akinyemiju T, Abera S, Ahmed M, Alam N, Alemayohu MA, Allen C, Al-Raddadi R, Alvis-Guzman N, Amoako Y, Artaman A, Ayele TA, Barac A, Bensenor I, Berhane A, Bhutta Z, Castillo-Rivas J, Chitheer A, Choi JY, Cowie B, Dandona L, Dandona R, Dey S, Dicker D, Phuc H, Ekwueme DU, Zaki ME, Fischer F, Fürst T, Hancock J, Hay SI, Hotez P, Jee SH, Kasaeian A, Khader Y, Khang YH, Kumar GA, Kutz M, Larson H, Lopez A, Lunevicius R, Malekzadeh R, McAlinden C, Meier T, Mendoza W, Mokdad A, Moradi-Lakeh M, Nagel G, Nguyen Q, Nguyen G, Ogbo F, Patton G, Pereira DM, Pourmalek F, Qorbani M, Radfar A, Roshandel G, Salomon JA, Sanabria J, Sartorius B, Satpathy M, Sawhney M, Sepanlou S, Shackelford K, Shore H, Sun J, Mengistu DT, Topór-Madry R, Tran B, Ukwaja KN, Vlassov V, Vollset SE, Vos T, Wakayo T, Weiderpass E, Werdecker A, Yonemoto N, Younis M, Yu C, Zaidi Z, Zhu L, Murray CJ, Naghavi M, Fitzmaurice C (2017). “The Burden of Primary Liver Cancer and Underlying Etiologies From 1990 to 2015 at the Global, Regional, and National Level: Results From the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015″. JAMA Oncol. 3: 1683–1691. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2017.3055. PMID 28983565.
- “Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015″. Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. 2016. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC 5388903. PMID 27733281.
- Yu Y, Cui Y, Niedernhofer LJ, Wang Y (2016). “Occurrence, Biological Consequences, and Human Health Relevance of Oxidative Stress-Induced DNA Damage”. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 29 (12): 2008–2039. doi:10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00265. PMC 5614522. PMID 27989142.
- Machida K, McNamara G, Cheng KT, Huang J, Wang CH, Comai L, Ou JH, Lai MM (2010). “Hepatitis C virus inhibits DNA damage repair through reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and by interfering with the ATM-NBS1/Mre11/Rad50 DNA repair pathway in monocytes and hepatocytes”. J. Immunol. 185 (11): 6985–98. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1000618. PMC 3101474. PMID 20974981.
- Parkin DM (2006). “The global health burden of infection-associated cancers in the year 2002″. Int. J. Cancer. 118 (12): 3030–44. doi:10.1002/ijc.21731. PMID 16404738.
- Chang AH, Parsonnet J (2010). “Role of bacteria in oncogenesis”. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 23 (4): 837–57. doi:10.1128/CMR.00012-10. PMC 2952975. PMID 20930075.
- Valavanidis A, Vlachogianni T, Fiotakis C (2009). “8-hydroxy-2′ -deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG): A critical biomarker of oxidative stress and carcinogenesis”. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 27 (2): 120–39. doi:10.1080/10590500902885684. PMID 19412858.
- Raza Y, Khan A, Farooqui A, Mubarak M, Facista A, Akhtar SS, Khan S, Kazi JI, Bernstein C, Kazmi SU (2014). “Oxidative DNA damage as a potential early biomarker of Helicobacter pylori associated carcinogenesis”. Pathol. Oncol. Res. 20 (4): 839–46. doi:10.1007/s12253-014-9762-1. PMID 24664859.
- Yasui M, Kanemaru Y, Kamoshita N, Suzuki T, Arakawa T, Honma M (2014). “Tracing the fates of site-specifically introduced DNA adducts in the human genome”. DNA Repair (Amst.). 15: 11–20. doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2014.01.003. PMID 24559511.
- Nishida N, Arizumi T, Takita M, Kitai S, Yada N, Hagiwara S, Inoue T, Minami Y, Ueshima K, Sakurai T, Kudo M (2013). “Reactive oxygen species induce epigenetic instability through the formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in human hepatocarcinogenesis”. Dig Dis. 31 (5–6): 459–66. doi:10.1159/000355245. PMID 24281021.
- Pallis, AG; Syrigos, KN (December 2013). “Lung cancer in never smokers: disease characteristics and risk factors”. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. 88 (3): 494–503. doi:10.1016/j.critrevonc.2013.06.011. PMID 23921082.
- Sung MW, Thung SN, Acs G (2000). “Hepatitis Viruses”. In Bast RC, Kufe DW, Pollock RE, et al. Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine (5th ed.). Hamilton, Ontario: B.C. Decker. ISBN 1-55009-113-1.
- McLachlin CM, Crum CP (2000). “Papillomaviruses and Cervical Neoplasia”. In Bast RC, Kufe DW, Pollock RE, et al. Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine (e.5 ed.). Hamilton, Ontario: B.C. Decker. ISBN 1-55009-113-1.
- Cohen JI (2000). “Herpesviruses”. In Bast RC, Kufe DW, Pollock RE, et al. Cancer Medicine (e.5 ed.). Hamilton, Ontario: B.C. Decker. ISBN 1-55009-113-1.
- Chang, Y; Cesarman, E; Pessin, M. S.; Lee, F; Culpepper, J; Knowles, D. M.; Moore, P. S. (1994). “Identification of herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma”. Science. 266 (5192): 1865–9. doi:10.1126/science.7997879. PMID 7997879.
- Poiesz, B. J.; Ruscetti, F. W.; Gazdar, A. F.; Bunn, P. A.; Minna, J. D.; Gallo, R. C. (1980). “Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 77 (12): 7415–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.77.12.7415. PMC 350514. PMID 6261256.
- Takatsuki, K (2005). “Discovery of adult T-cell leukemia”. Retrovirology. 2: 16. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-2-16. PMC 555581. PMID 15743528.
- Feng, H; Shuda, M; Chang, Y; Moore, P. S. (2008). “Clonal integration of a polyomavirus in human Merkel cell carcinoma”. Science. 319 (5866): 1096–100. doi:10.1126/science.1152586. PMC 2740911. PMID 18202256.
- Wood C, Harrington W (2005). “AIDS and associated malignancies”. Cell Res. 15(11–12): 947–52. doi:10.1038/sj.cr.7290372. PMID 16354573.
- Mellemkjaer L, Hammarstrom L, Andersen V, et al. (2002). “Cancer risk among patients with IgA deficiency or common variable immunodeficiency and their relatives: a combined Danish and Swedish study”. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 130 (3): 495–500. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2249.2002.02004.x. PMC 1906562. PMID 12452841.
- Peter S, Beglinger C (2007). “Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: the causal relationship”. Digestion. 75 (1): 25–35. doi:10.1159/000101564. PMID 17429205.
- Wang C, Yuan Y, Hunt RH (August 2007). “The association between Helicobacter pylori infection and early gastric cancer: a meta-analysis”. The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 102 (8): 1789–98. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2007.01335.x. PMID 17521398.
- Cheung TK, Xia HH, Wong BC (January 2007). “Helicobacter pylori eradication for gastric cancer prevention”. Journal of Gastroenterology. 42 Suppl 17: 10–5. doi:10.1007/s00535-006-1939-2. PMID 17238019.
- Hatakeyama M, Higashi H (December 2005). “Helicobacter pylori CagA: a new paradigm for bacterial carcinogenesis”. Cancer Science. 96 (12): 835–43. doi:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2005.00130.x. PMID 16367902.
- Zhan P, Suo LJ, Qian Q, et al. (March 2011). “Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and lung cancer risk: A meta-analysis”. Eur. J. Cancer. 47 (5): 742–7. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2010.11.003. PMID 21194924.
- Mager, DL (2006). “Bacteria and cancer: cause, coincidence or cure? A review”. Journal of Translational Medicine. 4 (1): 14. doi:10.1186/1479-5876-4-14. ISSN 1479-5876. PMC 1479838. PMID 16566840.
- Littman, A. J. (2005). “Chlamydia pneumoniae and Lung Cancer: Epidemiologic Evidence”. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 14 (4): 773–778. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-04-0599. ISSN 1055-9965. PMID 15824142.
- Mustacchi, Piero (2000). “Parasites”. In Bast, Robert C; Kufe, Donald W; Pollock, Raphael E; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Holland, James F; Frei, Emil. Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine (5th ed.). Hamilton, Ontario: B.C. Decker. ISBN 1-55009-113-1.
- Muehlenbachs, A; et al. (2015), “Malignant transformation of Hymenolepis nanain a human host”, N Engl J Med, 373: 1845–1852, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1505892.